31 CFR § 328 3 Authorization for restrictive endorsements. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR LII Legal Information Institute

Simply using a memo, restrictive endorsement, or cover letter will not do the trick. If you are a creditor, you now have more latitude in your ability to cash checks that are tendered for less than the amount owed. Be cautious, however, if you cash a check in the face of a clear cover letter that makes your right to endorse the check contingent on acceptance of the reduced amount in full payment, or otherwise says that if you cash it you agree to reduce the debt. Even in the face of a clear statutory mandate, courts have been willing to find against those who unfairly snap up another party’s attempt to negotiate in good faith.

  • It’s a smart idea to work out the terms of the RE before you send it to ensure the creditor agrees.
  • In terms of collectors, many people use a RE to settle a debt.
  • If you reach an agreement with your creditor, you should have the creditor send you a written settlement offer before you make any payment.
  • The Indian Contract Act is divisible into two parts.The first part (Section 1-75) deals with the general principles of the law of contract and therefore applies to all contracts irrespective of their nature.

This is not a sure thing, however, because state laws apply. Safe Harbor is in place to protect creditors, and if the safe harbor rule applies in your state, then negotiations can fall through. (2) A depositary bank that purchases the instrument or takes it for collection when so indorsed converts the instrument unless the amount paid by the bank with respect to the instrument is received by the indorser or applied consistently with the indorsement.

What Are Two Examples Of A Restrictive Endorsement?

Subsection (b) provides that an indorsement that states a condition to the right of a holder to receive payment is ineffective to condition payment. Thus if a payee indorses “Pay A if A ships goods complying with our contract,“ the right of A to enforce the instrument is not affected by the condition. In the case of a note, the obligation of the maker to pay A is not affected by the indorsement. In the case of a check, the drawee can pay A without regard to the condition, and if the check is dishonored the drawer is liable to pay A.

Usually, a restrictive endorsement allows the payer to have more control over the instrument in a transaction. Companies may use it as a part of their internal controls to prohibit any unidentified or unauthorized usage of their bills. Most companies use it to settle debt and protect against future disputes. However, it may create issues for the payee and may not be an ideal choice for suppliers.

Get started with Zolve Azpire today and build credit with your own money on everyday purchases. As you assemble your personalized eBriefcase, is accounts payable both a debit & a credit you may drag to reorder or delete items. The provisions of this circular are subject to the current revision of Department Circular No. 300.

  • Therefore, the underlying item no longer remains negotiable.
  • Get started with Zolve Azpire today and build credit with your own money on everyday purchases.
  • An endorsement is a signature on a negotiable instrument with the intention of transferring it.
  • If you use a bank lockbox to deposit all incoming checks, then impose a procedure where the bank staff does not deposit any checks containing restrictive endorsements, and instead forwards them to the company for review.
  • If there are no RE terms on the actual check, then there are ways around the clause by the creditor.

The company receiving the check can safely cash the check and proceed as appropriate to collect the remaining amount due. (4) For conversion to book-entry securities under subpart O of part 306 of this chapter—at any time prior to their maturity or call redemption date. This definition is limited to institutions incorporated within the United States, its territories and possessions, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the official legal print publication containing the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR) is a continuously updated online version of the CFR.

These significant changes to medical collection debt reporting support consumers faced with unexpected medical bills. At Bills.com, we strive to help you make financial decisions with confidence. While many of the products reviewed are from our Service Providers, including those with which we are affiliated and those that compensate us, our evaluations are never influenced by them. For more information regarding Bills.com’s relationship with advertised service providers see our Advertiser Disclosures. In our examples, then, negotiation of the first check with the memo line marked “PAYMENT IN FULL” will not extinguish the debt.

What is Bill of Exchange? Example, Features, Characteristics

Anyone who has a check with a blank endorsement may cash it. … Safest type of endorsement, as it cannot be cashed by a thief or someone who finds the check. Subsection (f) allows a restrictive indorsement to be used as a defense by a person obliged to pay the instrument if that person would be liable for paying in violation of the indorsement. Business Law is also known as Commercial law or corporate law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales. In this type of endorsement contains not only the signature of the endorser but also the name of the person in whose favour the endorsement is made, then it is an endorsement in full.


In this case, this endorsement provides authority to the endorsee to follow a specific path with that item. In both cases, the underlying principle for the restrictive endorsement remains the same. It effectively limits how the endorsed can use the involved instrument.

Additional reading

Therefore, the underlying item no longer remains negotiable. The endorsee within this endorsement cannot transfer that instrument to another party. With the restrictive endorsement, an endorser limits how the endorsed uses the underlying item.

The three nationwide credit reporting agencies – Equifax, Experian and TransUnion – have agreed to three important changes to reporting medical collection accounts. You must put the RE on the check outside of state laws that don’t honor them. This will prove that the creditor saw the terms and cashed the check.

§ 28:3–206. Restrictive indorsement.

Some states allow a creditor to cross out the RE and cash it “under protest,” so you need to tread carefully when dealing with these types of settlements. Getting a dialogue with the creditor beforehand is very practical to ensure success. A restrictive endorsement is usually a matter of pure money. If I create a check with a restrictive endorsement and you cash it, you have executed that endorsement, which means you agreed to my terms.

Articles of Association: Definition, Example, Contents, Alteration

Housing debt totaled $12.354 trillion and non-housing debt was $4.709 trillion. These new rules apply to checks and other instruments tendered or negotiated after October 4, 1997. It becomes increasingly difficult in the construction industry at the end of the season when profit margins are slipping, lines of credit are low, and business failures are soaring.

The term endorsement refers to signing a negotiable instrument to transfer the rights in the future. It includes writing a party’s name on the back of that instrument or other documents attached to it. On the other hand, the one receiving the instrument after the transfer is called the endorsed. The most common restrictive endorsement is the phrase For Deposit Only written along with the payee’s signature on the back of a check. Other wording for a similar restrictive endorsement might be Pay to the Order of Sample Bank for deposit to account #xxxx followed by the payee’s signature.

If you use a bank lockbox to deposit all incoming checks, then impose a procedure where the bank staff does not deposit any checks containing restrictive endorsements, and instead forwards them to the company for review. Sometimes, it may happen expressively when the endorser specifies the intention for the underlying instrument. Consequently, it prohibits further negotiation on that instrument. As stated above, that instrument no longer meets the definition of a negotiable instrument.

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